Tag Symmetry

modifier of effect

Ménage à trois

Modifier of effect In this post we will give another twist to the issue of the variables that can disturb the harmonious relationship of the couple formed by exposure and effect, so that all those dirty minds waiting else reading…
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confounding in case-control

A matter of pairs

Confounding in case-control studies We saw in the previous post how observational studies, in particular cohort studies and case-control studies, are full of traps and loopholes. One of these traps is the backdoor through which data may be eluding us,…
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confounding in cohort studies

Birds of a feather flock together

Confounding in cohort studies Sometimes, we cannot help confounding factors getting involved in our studies, both known and unknown. These confounding variables open a backdoor through which our data can slip, making those measures of association between exposure and effect…
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Propensity score

You can’t make a silk purse…

Propensity score … of a sow’s ear. No, you can’t. As much as you try, it will remain a sow’s ear. And this is because the characteristics or defects of everyone cannot be avoided simply because one does external improvements.…
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Confounding variable

The backdoor

Confounding variable I wish I had a time machine!. Think about it for a moment. We should not have to work (we would have won the lottery several times), we could anticipate all our misfortunes, always making the best decision…
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Centralization and dispersion

Playing with powers

Centralization and dispersion Numbers are a very peculiar creatures. It seems incredible sometimes what can be achieved by operating with some of them. You can even get other different numbers expressing different things. This is the case of the process…
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